|Surface Chemistry||Benefits||Related Documents|
|Protein Conjugation||5nm-100nm||standard (citrate)||Quick||Classic Passive Adsorption of Proteins to Gold Nanoparticles|
|NHS||Covalent conjugation to primary amines, increased stability, less non-specific protein binding.||Conjugation of proteins to NHS-activated gold nanoparticles|
|Maleimide||Covalent conjugation to thiol groups, increased stability, less non-specific protein binding.||-|
|Carboxyl||Covalent conjugation, increased stability, less non-specific protein binding.||Covalent conjugation of proteins to carboxyl gold nanoparticles|
|Amine||Conjugation of carboxylated ligands||-|
|Streptavidin||Can be used with any biotinylated ligand, ideal for high-throughput screenings.||-|
|Modification with thiolated ligands
|5nm-100nm||standard (citrate)||Classic starting material, no additional stabilizers added||-|
|stabilized (surfactant)||Increased stability during functionalization but reduced kinetics||-|
|Oligonucleotide Conjugation||5nm-15nm||standard (citrate)||Ideal for conjugation of thiolated oligonucleotides to small particle sizes.||-|
|5nm-100nm||OligoREADY™||Ideal for conjugation of thiol modified oligos to particles between 5nm-100nm in diameter.||-|
|5nm-100nm||Maleimide||Ideal for covalent conjugation of thiol modified oligos to particles between 5nm-100nm in diameter.||-|
|5nm-100nm||NHS||For covalent conjugation of amine functionalized oligonucleotides.
Ideal when a linker is required between the gold surface and conjugated oligonucleotide.
|Immuno-dot blot/Western blot||5nm-20nm||Protein conjugated gold nanoparticles (antibodies, streptavidin etc)||Colorimetric straightforward detection (no equipment required)
Generates a permanent label
|Immunoblotting protocol for gold conjugates|
|Immunohistochemistry (TEM)||5nm-40nm||Protein conjugated gold nanoparticles (antibodies, streptavidin etc)||High contrast label||-|
|Flow Cytometry||50nm-400nm||Gold Size Standards||Ideal for standardization of results between runs and experiments when analyzing particles in the 50nm-400nm range.||-|
|Cellular Uptake||30nm-60nm||Transferrin gold conjugate||Active uptake through endocytosis||-|
|Standard (citrate)||Non-specific cellular uptake||-|
|Cationic gold (available upon request)||High efficiency non-specific cellular uptake||-|
|Darkfield Microscopy||50nm-100nm||Gold conjugates||-||-|
|Lateral Flow/Dip-Stick Assays||30nm-80nm||Standard (citrate)||Allows for development of rapid testing kit, point of care assays||Lateral flow immunoassays|
|Tumor Targeting||30nm-80nm||methoxy-PEG||Allows for passive targeting of certain tumors in vivo
Inert material with low non-specific protein binding in serum
|Light Microscopy||5nm-10nm||Gold secondary antibody conjugates||Ability to label tissue sections for both light and electron microscopy.
Alternative to peroxidase and PAP based stains.
Sensitivity can be enhanced with silver enhancement techniques
|ELISA||5nm-30nm||Gold antibody conjugates||Straightforward colorimetric detection||-|